If you have a large set of data, then descriptive statistics provides graphical (e.g. boxplots) and numerical (e.g. summary tables, means, quartiles) ways to make sense of the data. The branch of statistics devoted to the exploration, summary and presentation of data is called descriptive statistics.
If you need to do more than descriptive summaries and presentations it is to use the data to make inferences about some larger population. Inferential statistics is the branch of statistics devoted to making generalizations.